Breast Lift Sydney & Wollongong NSW

Breast Lift Sydney - Mastopexy Surgery to Lift, Reshape & Contour your Breasts

Unfortunately, our breasts come equipped with very little natural support and become saggy over time.

They’re left defenseless against the ravages of pregnancy, breastfeeding, weight loss and gravity, which results in a loss of shape, firmness, and forms the dreaded sag. Ultimately, this can dramatically impact the way you feel about your body shape, reducing your confidence and self-esteem.

That’s why breast lift surgery, or Mastopexy surgery, is more than a vanity. It can make a big difference in women’s lives. And so, this is where we come in. Sydney Plastic Surgeon Dr Jeremy Hunt has, over the years, perfected breast lift surgery that can  restore a youthful shape and aesthetically enhances your breast shape.

In addition to reshaping and firming your breasts, lifting them and reducing the size of your areola, breast lift surgery procedures can be combined with breast augmentation if you’d also like to see an increase in size.

breast lift surgery

What is a Breast Lift?

A Sydney breast lift (mastopexy), is a cosmetic surgical procedure performed by Dr Jeremy Hunt that alters breast contour, restores breast volume, and above all, creates a good breast shape that rejuvenates your youthful appearance.

The breast lift procedure is a popular cosmetic surgery sought out by many who want to get rid of drooping breasts. Breast lift procedures are amongst the safest and effective cosmetic procedures that tackle the signs of ageing that affect our bodies.

What Can Breast Lift Surgery Do For Me?

Many women experience breast development at a different rate through puberty, thus resulting in one breast being larger than the other, which is completely normal. Bodyweight fluctuations, pregnancy, and ageing can cause the nipple and breast tissue to lose firmness and elasticity. Additionally, the ligaments and skin which hold the shape of your breasts stretch. This results in unsightly sagging skin around your chest which reduces the firmness of your breasts. A mastopexy can address many of the concerns associated with signs of ageing. For example, breast sagging can result in a change of nipple position or the formation of excess skin which can be removed during your procedure.

Benefits of Breast Lift Surgery

The breast lift surgery procedures is popular as it can significantly enhance the aspect of the breasts. There are multiple benefits associated with undergoing this procedure such as:

  • Perky breasts
  • A better looking cleavage
  • A boost of self-esteem and self-confidence
  • A rejuvenated look
  • The possibility to wear any clothes and lingerie you like and not worry about saggy breasts
breast lift surgery sydney

Breast Lift Incision Techniques

There are several incision techniques that can be used for Breast Lift Surgery Procedures. Every technique comes with its own set of pros and cons. Here are the most common techniques used for Mastopexy.

  • Lollipop Lift – This popular technique involves making a circular incision around the entirety of the areola, followed by an incision down to the breast crease. This approach is offered to those with moderate sagging or to those not interested in the addition of implants.
  • Anchor Lift – For women experiencing severe sagging the anchor lift is used. The incisions are similar to the Lollipop lift, however, there is an additional incision placed horizontally along the breast crease making an inverted T or Anchor shape. This is used for those wanting a major combined breast lift.
  • Donut Lift or Peri-areolar Incision – This is a slightly less-invasive procedure that involves one singular incision around the areola. This incision allows repositioning the nipple to a more aesthetically pleasing area whilst tightening the skin around the breasts. This procedure can be combined with breast implants.
  • Crescent Lift – Perhaps the most minimally invasive procedure to lift the breasts, the crescent lift technique involves making a semi-circular incision along the top half of the areola. This procedure is rarely used in Australia and is suitable for patients who only want minor adjustments to the nipple and areola.

Adding Breast Implants for more Upper Pole Fullness

There are a variety of approaches Dr Hunt can take when performing a breast uplift. However, choosing the right approach for you depends solely on the current condition of your breasts and desired outcome. Your consultation with Dr Hunt will enable you to identify which breast lift technique is best suited to you.

Breast Lift Without Implants

A breast lift is designed to remove excess skin whilst preserving natural breast tissue to create a firmer look. It can give the impression of “larger breasts” by simply moving the breast higher on the chest wall, instead of the use of an implant.

Breast Lift With Implants or Breast Augmentation & Lift

The use of  implants involves the lifting, rounding, and enlargement of the breasts. Essentially, it encompasses the use of two procedures in one. Those wanting firmer, perkier and larger breasts can discuss their options with Dr Hunt and choose their breast implant options.

How Is A Breast Lift Procedure Performed?

During your initial consultation with Dr Hunt, you’ll discuss what you’re hoping to achieve and he’ll answer any questions or concerns you may have. He’ll then evaluate your current situation, and discuss the best approach for achieving your desired results. This will be based on a combination of factors including your age, the size and shape of your breasts, the condition of your skin and the amount of ‘lift’ that will be necessary.

If you choose to go ahead with your surgery procedures, it will be performed in the hospital of your choice, under a general anesthetic administered by one of Dr Hunt’s hand-selected anesthetists.

The aim of surgery is to reposition your breast tissue to a more aesthetically pleasing location.

Several surgical techniques can be used, and Dr Hunt will choose the best one for you. For example, if you have small breasts and minimal sagging, you may be a candidate for short-scar surgery such as the ‘doughnut’ (periareolar mastopexy), in which circular incisions are made around the areola only.

Although there are multiple approaches that can be taken to lift the breasts, they mostly follow the steps outlined below:

Breast Lift Procedure

Step one – marking up

Dr Hunt will first mark you whilst you are standing up. This will help determine the positioning of your nipple and breast following the completion of the procedure.

Step two – anaesthesia

You will then be put under general anaesthesia to help relax you and alleviate any pain felt throughout the procedure.

Step three – incisions

Once under, Dr Hunt will make an incision around the marked areas on your areola. Depending on the procedure of choice, the incision may either be made only around the areola or extend down the front of your breast up to the natural crease of your breast.

Step four – reshape and lift

Dr Hunt will then tighten the supporting structures of the breasts and reshape the natural breast tissue to give your breasts a firm, round look. Depending on where your breasts hang below the level of the lower breast fold, Dr Hunt may move the breasts higher up on the chest wall and reposition your nipple higher on the breast mound. If you are unhappy with the size of your areola, Dr Hunt can excise the perimeter to give them a more aesthetic look, depending on the availability of suitable breast tissue.

Step five – removing excess skin

Dr Hunt will remove any excess skin around the breast mound, allowing the remaining breast tissue to settle into a natural, rounded shape, giving you firmer breasts.

Step six – suturing and bandaging

Once the breast lift (mastopexy) is complete, Dr Hunt will close the incisions shut using sutures or surgical adhesives. The incisions will be placed inconspicuously to ensure that minimal noticeable scarring is present once you recover.

Breast Lift Surgery Recovery Timeline

As with all cosmetic surgery procedures, breast lifting surgery requires a certain amount of downtime before true results can be seen. It can take as long as 6 weeks to fully recover from your surgery. From what you wear to what you can and can’t do, you will need to be aware of the precautions to take at every stage of recovery. The timeline below will help give you an idea of what to expect following your surgery.

Surgery Day

These procedures are commonly performed as outpatient surgeries meaning that patients can go home on the same day. However, you will not be able to drive as you recover from the anesthesia, and so we recommend you arrange a means of transportation back home. Your breasts will be dressed with gauze and you will be given a surgical support bra to wear. Depending on the incisions used, you may have some drains placed at the incisions to prevent the build-up of excess fluid.

Day After Surgery

Pain will be the most intense days 1 to 3 following surgery. Make sure to talk to your doctor about pain relief and have a course of painkillers prescribed just in case. You may feel slightly sick as the anesthesia wears off which is completely normal. You may be required to follow up with Dr Hunt for the removal of any drains or bandages.

Next Week

Pain should have significantly decreased although there will still be evident bruising and swelling. You will be able to return to light activities such as walking or shopping but should continue to avoid heavy lifting, bending over, and raising your arms above your head. You will be able to return to work if you work in an office or have a desk-based job.

The First Month and On-Wards

After one month you should be able to return to your regular daily routine with the exception of weight lifting and chest-demanding activities. You should be able to stop wearing your surgical bra and start wearing an underwire bra around 6 weeks after surgery. At 6 months your breasts should have taken their new shape and scarring should have completely diminished.

Download Dr Hunt's Guide

Cosmetic Breast Surgery Guide

The ultimate Cosmetic Breast Surgery Guide has been created by Dr Hunt and his team as a useful tool to help you plan and consider breast surgery.

Throughout the guide, we will discuss the ins and outs of different types of Breast Surgery, from what makes an ideal candidate, to pre-surgery planning answers to the most frequently asked questions received from real-life patients.

breast lift sydney

Breast Lift Cost Sydney - Prices & Fees - How Much Does a Breast Lift Sydney Cost?

There are several different elements to take into consideration when determining the final cost of your procedure. Your Surgeon, hospital and anaesthetist fees all need to be taken into account. Surgical costs start to differ between patients when specific requirements are involved.

Not all patients only require a breast lift, some also choose to insert implants to achieve their desired outcome. In other instances, patients choose to incorporate their lift into a more comprehensive surgical plan, which would also alter the costs.

In terms of whether your Medicare or your health fund will cover some of the costs of this procedure, this would depend on your specific circumstances. You may need to get approval from Medicare before any of the costs will be covered. Find out more about Medicare & Private Health Fund for Breast lift Surgery or a Breast Lift payment plan for surgery

Is a Breast Lift Worth It? – Yes. Almost all women who get a breastlift find it worth the time and effort. A breast lift can restore a tighter and younger physique and make you feel more confident about your body. A patient survey by realself found 97% of breast lift patients rated it ‘worth it’.

To get an estimated range of what you can expect to pay for this surgery, it’s best to call Dr Hunt’s team on 1300 157 200 or book a consultation and fill up the Enquiry form.

5 Breast Lift Top Tips

Every woman has their own imagination of what the “ideal breasts” look like. Breasts naturally come in all forms of shapes and sizes, whether they may be too small, too large, too saggy, or unsymmetrical. In order to overcome the stigma behind uneven or unsightly breast shapes, women turn to breast lift surgery, but often with a number of wrong impressions of what the procedure entails. Below are 5 of the most common mistakes relating to this procedure:

ONE – Do the appropriate research.

The results of your procedure depend heavily on the surgical ability of your doctor. Therefore, you need to carry out extensive research on all of the surgeons around your area before choosing the right one. Things to consider when researching your surgeon of choice are how many surgeries your doctor has performed, what is their patient satisfaction rate, whether or not they are competitively priced, and if they are accredited by the appropriate boards.

TWO – Prepare for the Consult and Take your Time

During your consultation, it is essential that you tell your surgeon everything, from your social history to your family history and underlying medical conditions. Any information that is missed can either delay your surgery or lead you to develop complications.

THREE – Look at Patient Photos to decide what you want

In order to get a true feel as to what your results will look like following your surgery, it is recommended that you browse through your selected surgeons before and after images. Although breasts are unique, the before and after photos reflect your surgeon’s attention to detail and allow you to understand how Dr Hunt can give you your desired outcome.

FOUR – Follow the Recovery Instructions closely

One of the essential aspects of fuller, firmer, and perkier breasts, is following your surgeon’s advice following your procedure. Dr Hunt’s efforts and skills may be diminished if you neglect the advice given to you. Rest, follow appropriate incision care, and slowly ease yourself back into your fitness routine. Make sure to wear any garments given to you that will help speed up your recovery.

FIVE – Decide for Yourself

Ask yourself this before you book a consultation – did you really want the surgery in the first place or have you been pressured into getting one to please somebody else?

It is wrong to get any kind of body modification or enhancement solely due to the preferences of anybody else. It’s one thing if you want to fix sagging breasts as a result of weight loss, or even up the symmetry of your breasts, however, doing so out of obligation to please another person(s) is not recommended and can result in you losing confidence in yourself.

5 Myths About Breast Lift

Myth 1 – You can enhance the look of your breasts using supplements.

There is no supplement, oral or topical, that can give you a lifting effect similar to those produced during a surgical lifting of the breast. Although there are creams that can improve skin elasticity, it is not enough to produce a physical lift to the breast. In order to get a significant and long-lasting effect, you should consider surgical procedures that physically reposition your breast tissue.

Myth 2 – Exercise can give you perky breasts.

Exercise is undoubtedly vital to a healthier lifestyle. And yes, weight lifting and regular exercise can significantly improve our physique. However, there is no workout regime that can alter the shape of our breasts. Weight gain can cause an enlargement of the breasts. When this weight is lost, we are sometimes stuck with excess skin that results in sagging breasts. To truly address the nature of the droopiness of the breasts, you need to address the causative factor – the excess skin, which can only be tackled surgically.

Myth 3 – You don’t need a breast lift, implants will fix it

A woman’s breasts often need more than a breast augmentation to achieve the desired level of perkiness. Although for some, breast implants are enough (such as those who have minimal sagging and great skin elasticity).

Myth 4 – Breasts are immune to bodyweight fluctuations

In truth, breasts are just as much affected by weight gain and weight loss as the rest of the body. There is little that can be done in preventing this effect other than opting for cosmetic surgery.

Myth 5 – Breast lifts last forever

Unfortunately, nothing has been developed to stop the inevitable process of ageing. Although various cosmetic procedures are available to help revert some of these changes, they can always come back. As is the case following a breast procedure. As you age, as does your breast tissue. This means that your breasts can sag further on in your life even if you have had a cosmetic enhancement.

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Breast Lift FAQs

When will I see the end result of a Breast Lift?

Answer:

It can take anything from a few months to a year to see the final results following your procedure.

Do I need a medical referral for a Breastlift?

Answer:

Not necessarily, if you wish to have a breast lift to alter the shape of your breast to your desired aesthetic look, simply book a consultation with Dr Hunt and discuss your best options in Sydney. If meet the  strict criteria and you want to claim Medicare for your Breast Lift – you will need a referral at time of surgery.

What should I do before breastlift surgery?

Answer:

Dr Hunt will give you a list of instructions to follow prior to your surgery, such as stopping smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and being in good general and mental health.

Can I breastfeed after a breast lift?

Answer:

Most women can breastfeed after their breast lift, as the ducts are not typically involved in the procedure. However, as with all surgery, there is a degree of risk of injuring these ducts. Dr Hunt will carry out all appropriate postoperative assessments to ensure your breastfeeding abilities are not compromised.

When will I be able to swim after the breast uplift procedure?

Answer:

You will be able to swim after your incisions have fully healed, which can be as early as 4 – 6 weeks after your procedure given that you are healing well.

Will I need further surgery after Breast LIft?

Answer:

As you age and battle against the forces of gravity, your newly shaped breasts may still sag. Further surgery is applicable if the patient has experienced a considerable sagging of their breasts after their procedure and their tissue contains an adequate blood supply.

When can I go home?

Answer:

You can go home as soon as you are comfortable and able to get to the bathroom, which may be on the same day as your surgery, or maybe the morning after. Once you get home, you should limit your movements to around the house for two to three days.

Will I need medications after surgery?

Answer:

Depending on how your surgery goes, you may be prescribed painkillers to alleviate the pain and antibiotics if there is a risk of infection.

Will I have to return for post-operative care?

Answer:

You will return to see Dr Hunt within the first five days after your surgery. You’ll then return in two weeks, three months, and 12 months.

How long will I be off work?

Answer:

You will need to take a week or two off work depending on the physical demands of your role.

When can I resume my normal activities?

Answer:

You should restrict all physical activity for two weeks, after which you can return to your normal activities. However, you must protect your breasts from stretching activities for at least six weeks to allow the incisions to heal.

When will I be able to drive after the surgery?

Answer:

You will be able to drive once the effects of the anaesthesia have worn off. If you do not feel comfortable driving due to pain, then we recommend waiting until you are more comfortable moving.

When can I exercise after surgery?

Answer:

Light exercises such as walking can be returned to around 1 week after surgery. Most patients can return to pre-surgery exercise around 1 month after their procedure. Avoid strenuous exercises and heavy lifting until fully healed.

How long does a breast lift last?

Answer:

An expertly performed breastlift should last you anywhere between 10-15 years. This varies depending on the size of your breasts and the quality of your skin. Many patients are still flaunting their perky breasts 10 years after their mastopexy.

Will a breast lift reduce cup size?

Answer:

If not combined with breast augmentation, then a breast lift will slightly reduce your cup size by up to 1 cup. This, naturally, depends on how much healthy breast tissue you have left. But expect to have slightly smaller (but tighter) breasts if you’re getting breast lift without augmentation.

Do scars fade after a breast lift?

Answer:

Yes, they do. However, this largely depends on the type of lift you get. The crescent and peri-areolar breast lifts offer very well hidden scars within the pigmented skin around the nipple. The anchor and lollipop uplifts include a vertical incision along the lower pole of the breast. Although it significantly fades away with time, the scars might stay noticeable. In any case, breast uplift scars develop over 6-12 months, and will gradually become much less visible.

Will I need another breast lift in future?

Answer:

A second breast lift might be needed after 10-15 years of your first mastopexy. Breast lifts are, unfortunately, not lifelong, so you might need revision after some time.

Can a breast lift affect breastfeeding?

Answer:

No, breast lifting surgery by Dr Hunt does not usually affect breastfeeding. During mastopexy, your milk-producing tissue and ducts are not disrupted. However, if you are getting a breast implant with your uplift, this might change. If you’re planning to have a baby after your breast lift, make sure you discuss it with Dr. Hunt.

What are the benefits of a breast lift?

Answer:

A breast lift has both cosmetic and psychological benefits. It will make your breasts perky again – no more excess skin, no more downward-pointing nipple, no more deflated boobs. The young shape and contour of your breasts will be restored.

Can a breast lift be done without implants?

Answer:

Yes. Breast lift can be done with or without breast implants. The choice of whether or not you should get implants with your lift depends on many factors. Your natural anatomy, breast size, severity of breast ptosis, remaining healthy breast tissue.

Can a breast lift elevate your nipples?

Answer:

Yes. Breast and nipple ptosis can be fixed with a breast lift. Breast sagging can often lead to downward pointing nipples. A mastopexy will elevate your nipples and make them face forward again.

Can a breast lift be combined with other procedures?

Answer:

Yes. A breast lift can be combined with breast augmentation, fat grafting, breast reduction, and mummy makeover.

What are the different types of breast uplift?

Answer:

The most famous types of breast lift techniques include the lollipop, anchor (inverted T), donut (periareolar), and crescent breast lift. The type of breast lift you get depends on the degree of ptosis and your desired outcomes.

Can you do a fat transfer with a breast lift?

Answer:

Yes. A breast lift can be combined with autologous fat transfer (fat grafting). In addition to lifting your breasts, Dr. Hunt will be able to naturally make them look fuller and rounder without an implant.

Should I wait till after I have kids to get a breast lift?

Answer:

If you need a breast lift, you can have it before or after having kids. A breast lift does not affect your ability to breastfeed. And pregnancy will not permanently affect the shape of your breasts or ruin your lift.

What is the recovery time for a breast lift?

Answer:

The time for full recovery from a breast lift is 4-6 weeks. You can usually get back to work after 1 week post-lift. Swelling, pain, and bruising might stay there for up to 6 weeks.

How painful is a breast lift?

Answer:

Mastopexy is not particularly painful. Nevertheless, breast lifting is an invasive procedure, and hence, pain is not completely avoidable. Your breast lift wounds will hurt to some extent during recovery. Dr. Hunt will give you several painkillers to help control the pain after mastopexy, so you shouldn’t worry too much about it.

Can I go without a bra after a breast lift?

Answer:

After your breast lift, it is recommended that you wear a surgical bra for at least 4 weeks. Day and night. A surgical or sports bra will protect your breasts during recovery. After 4 weeks, you can wear a regular bra or even go bra-less.

How long do stitches stay in after breast lift?

Answer:

After a mastopexy, dressings will be changed within 7-10 days. Hunt has uses absorbable sutures, they should dissolve on their own within a couple of weeks.

Can you sleep on your side after a breast lift?

Answer:

It is recommended that you avoid sleeping on your side or on your belly after your breast lift. During breast lift recovery, you should sleep on your back for at least 4 weeks after your surgery.

How long does breast lift pain last?

Answer:

Pain from breast lift surgery can stay for up to 2-3 weeks. However, it’s most intense during the first 3-5 days. As of the second week of breast lift recovery, the pain should drop significantly and gradually disappear.

How can I speed up my recovery after a breast lift?

Answer:

If you want to recover faster after a breast lift, then you need to follow the exact instructions of Dr. Hunt. Sleeping on your back, wearing a surgical bra, using ice packs, and taking your medications as prescribed are essential for a fast and smooth breast lift recovery.

What can you not do after a breast lift?

Answer:

After a breast lift, it’s recommended that you avoid intense sports for 3-4 weeks. Sex is okay, as long as you are mindful of your wounds, and keep your breasts out of it. Any activities that involve straining your chest muscles (like driving, push-ups, pushing a trolly, etc.) should be avoided the first few weeks after a breast lift.

When can I shower after a breast lift?

Answer:

You can shower as of the second day after your breast lift. The skin water-tight barrier is sealed by 48 hours. Make sure not to violently rub your breasts when showering and patting them dry.

Do you need drains after a breast lift?

Answer:

In most cases, surgical drains are not needed after a breast lift.

How long do drains stay after a mastopexy?

Answer:

If you do indeed need surgical drains after mastopexy, then they usually stay in place for 1-2 days. Once we’re sure there’s no fluid collection, the drains are taken out.

Can I take my surgical bra off for a few hours after breast lift?

Answer:

You can take a break from your surgical bra for a few hours as long as you put it back on again during recovery.

When can I lift my arms after a breast lift?

Answer:

You should try to keep overhead movements to a minimum during the first 7-10 days of breast lift recovery.

What is the best age to get a breast lift?

Answer:

The most common age to get a breast lift is around in 45-50. Most women, by this age, are done having children and would like to restore their pre-pregnancy breasts. However, there’s actually no perfect age for a breast lift. If you have breast ptosis, a breast lift can be done as young as 18. Many patients in their 20s need a breast lift after massive weight loss.

How can I fix my sagging breasts naturally?

Answer:

Unfortunately, there’s no “fully natural” breast lift. Once the breast skin becomes lax, sports, creams, massage, and natural remedies will not help. The only way to deal with sagging breasts is with breast lift surgery.

What is the fastest way to tighten saggy breasts?

Answer:

The fastest and best way to tighten droopy breasts is through a breast lift (mastopexy). Results are usually instantaneous and sustainable for years.

Will insurance cover a breast lift in Australia?

Answer:

If breast lifting is done purely for cosmetic reasons, then medicare and insurance will not cover the costs. However, if your droopy breasts are causing you skin irritation or physical restrictions, then you might be eligible for a rebate. Visit the Medicare information page for more.

Does going braless prevent sagging?

Answer:

Studies regarding this are conflicting. On one hand, some doctors say that going braless strengthens your breast ligaments (cooper’s ligaments). On the other hand, some experts think that not wearing a bra weakens the ligaments and stretches your breast skin, leading to sagging. It might be that wearing or not wearing a bra doesn’t have anything to do with breast ptosis.

What is a scarless breast lift?

Answer:

This is sometimes referred to as a “non-surgical” breastlift or breastlift by liposuction only. Although it can briefly make your breasts look smaller or tighter without surgery, the results are never sustainable nor dramatic. Dr Hunt does not recommend liposuction alone for breast lifting

Will losing weight cause saggy breasts?

Answer:

Extreme weight loss after bariatric surgery or after successful dieting can cause breast drooping. When you’re overweight, the fat builds up in your breasts and stretches the skin. When you lose weight quickly, the fat goes away, but the excess skin doesn’t.

What do I need to buy before a breast lift?

Answer:

When preparing for your breastlift, you should buy your groceries so that you don’t have to go shopping in the first few days after your uplift. You should also buy gauze, antibacterial sope, hand sanitizer, extra pillows, and some snacks and foods to keep you busy while you rest.

TOP PLASTIC SURGEON SYDNEY

About Dr Jeremy Hunt

Dr Hunt has worked with thousands of patients across his 20-year career. He is widely regarded as a top plastic surgeon in Australia. This is reflected in his role as Spokesperson for the ASPS – Australian Society of Plastic Surgery. Dr Hunt is also a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (FRACS) and Supervisor of Plastic Surgery Training at Sydney Children’s Hospital.

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Dr Maryam Seyedabadi

Dr Maryam Seyedabadi has recently joined Dr Hunt’s practice in Edgecliff and is now available for consultations on a range of plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery for breast, body and face.

She is just one of the very few dually qualified Specialist Plastic Surgeons, completing both medical and dental degrees. This gives her an excellent skillset and ability for face surgery, orthognathic & jaw surgery.

As a Sydney Female Plastic Surgeon, Dr Maryam offers surgery by women for women. She is supported in clinic & theatre by a completely female surgical team for those who prefer being operated on in a women-only or more female-friendly private hospital environment.

 

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